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Runic Inscriptions

10 11 Many of our everyday words are related by their history or etymology to Old English rune words. In this way echoes of the runes are spread throughout many of the modern North European languages. The modern word Fee derives from the first rune Feoh, denoting cattle, or wealth, its shape also resembling bovine horns. In former times the amount of cattle an individual possessed was a measure for their wealth. The Scottish dialectal word Ken, meaning to know is also the esoteric illumination behind the rune Ken, shaped like an old firebrand. Many of the rune characters developed in this way from shapes or forms found in the surrounding natural world. Gyfu, denoting partnerships, resembles the crosses long made at the end of love letters. The shape of the rune Nyd, signifying need, may be the origin for the popular custom of fingers crossed. Observing runeshapes from these realms was once considered to be meaningful. the runIc Fu orc getting to know the runes The AngloSaxon Fuorc was used in inscriptions until around the ninth century, by which time it had again been further developed in the kingdom of Northumbria. The ninth century also saw the introduction into the British Isles of the sixteen character Younger Fu ark brought by settling Vikings and inscribed here until the twelfth century. The rune words of the AngloSaxon Fu orc have many cognates in Old English and these words may represent related concepts and meanings of the runes. During the foundation of Christianity upon old Englands pagan soils the Latin alphabet became reintroduced and the runes coexisted alongside it through the time of the Dual Faith and right into the conversion period. Eventually the Church replaced this heathen alphabet with the characters with which I now write. The first two familes, or ttir, are shown on the next page the rest are shown facing them.
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