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Perspective and Illusion

4 5 orThographIc projecTIons top, front, and side views Whether you are a caveman or an architect, a useful representation of an object or scene is often one of three simple drawings the plan top view, section side view, or elevation front view. That these three ancient views, correctly combined, completely define an object was only first understood in the Renaissance by Uccello and Drer. Later, in early 18th century France, Gaspard Monge developed the method of projective geometry where the object to be drawn is placed in a box and projected by an infinitely distant light source on to its faces. This gave rise to two systems, the back thrown first angle projection below left, used in Europe during the Industrial Revolution, and the forwardthrown third angle projection below right, which was adopted in the US. Most cave paintings are simple elevations, showing animals and hunters seen from the side. Early maps are rough plans. By contrast, in Andrea Pozzos 1693 picture opposite top, the careful use of plan and elevation has facilitated an accurate perspective drawing, and in the picture of block machinery from Rees Cyclopedia of 1820 lower opposite all three projections are shown aligned, enabling a manufacturer to take measurements directly off the drawing.
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