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Human Body

tHrEEFold systEms WEstErn FourFold systEm Nerves send their messages to other nerves or muscles using neurotransmitters NTs. NTs tend to be small molecules, mainly aminoacid derivatives, which travel across the gaps in synapses or neuromuscular junctions, binding to receptors on target cells, which opens ion channels Na or Ca2 in excitatory neurons, and K or Cl in inhibitory ones. Receptors come in several subtypes for most NTs, having variable or polar effects in different cells, and are often named after natural drugs that excite or block them, like nicotinic and muscarinic receptors for acetylcholine ACh. ACh is the most pure NT all the others have some hormone like phasic activity on certain cells, like noradrenaline NA. ACh and NA are the main NTs of the peripheral nervous system, and can be excitatory or inhibitory, receptor dependant. ACh and NA are also Central Nervous System NTs. Other major CNS NTs are Serotonin 5HT tryptophan derivative, gut neuro hormone and rare but crucial midbrainbrainstem NT. Mood, humour, significance of perceptions on all levels. Dopamine unlike 5HT, mainly excitatory, midbrain motor, and limbic motivationrewardsatisfaction areas. Histamine inhibitory in hypothalamic temperature arousal circuits. Common peripheral inflammatory signaller. GABA prevalent local inhibitor in brain. Relaxation in general, as after a meal. Many addictive drugs mimic it. Glycine spinal cord GABA, blocked by strychnine. Glutamate Aspartate excite nonlocal integration. Endorphins other peptide opioids inhibitory, widespread, esp. pain tracts. Transitory blissful peace. Substance P excites, antiendorphin, chili, P for pain. Nitric oxide bloodflow, and nonCNS local control of heartarterygut muscles. In nerves to penis and clitoris. Hormone is a loose term these days, with new messaging systems being discovered regularly. Proper hormones are either aminoacid derivatives as amines, polypeptides, or glycoproteins or cholesterol derivatives called steroids, made by the adrenal cortex, testisovary, and placenta. Pineal releases many newly discovered peptides, but its only even partially understood product is melatonin, made from serotonin during darkness. Dual rhythms pp4448. Hypothalamus secretes only release and inhibitory factors controlling pituitary, via dedicated capillary loops. Anterior Pituitary controls lower glands with trophic hormones, like ACTH adrenal cortex, TSH thyroid, and FSHLH ovaries testes. Controls pigmentation MSH, growth GH, p48, fatness LPH, and milk production prolactin, p46. Posterior pituitary makes two nonapeptide hormones nineaminoacids which differ by just two aminoacids oxytocin letting go of feelings, fetus, milk, and memories, and vasopressin holding on to water, memories emotions. Thyroid speeed of development, metabolism, growth, and energy. Thyroxines are iodineadded peptides which travel into cells, and either bind with cells zincfinger proteins off to the nucleus to regulate transcription rates of sets of master genes, or short circuit mitochondrial ATP production, resulting in release of energy as heat. Parathyroid PTH opposes thyroids calcitonin p46 Thymus childhood immune development p34 Pancreas islet cells secrete a glucagon 29 aminoacid peptide, catabolic king of gut hormones, which opposes b insulin twounit peptide, 2130 aminoacids which stimulates storage, repair, anabolism in general. Other pancreatic hormones control digestive signals processes. Adrenal medulla neurohormones adrenaline NA. Steroid hormones, like thyroxines, are small, and bind other zincfinger proteins, with pervasive effects, also act via cell wall receptors, like most other hormones. Adrenal cortex catabolic steroids e.g. cortisol inhibit gene expression, others rule saltwater balance. Makes extra sex steroids, male and female, in both sexes. Ovaries womanhood via estrogens and progesterones. Testes manhood via androgens like testosterones. Placenta steroids and enormous pregnancy peptides. All other organs make hormone like substances. mAjor HormonEs by glAnd Plato Nature Weather Geometry Galen Medieval Body politic 20th C. Paracelsus Haines Jung Fromm MyersBriggs Keirsey ARTISAN FIRE hot dry tetrahedron SANGUINE blood liver arms electricmetabolic changeable influential ISFP, ISTP, ESFP, ESTP exploitative probing artistic, audacious adaptable, hedonistic optimistic, cynical here, now GUARDIAN EARTH cold dry cube MELANCHOLIC bile intestines legs structuralpermanent industrious conscientious ISFJ, ISTJ, ESFJ, ESTJ hoarding scheduling dependable, beneficient respectable, stoical pessimistic, fatalistic gateways, yesterday IDEALIST AIR hot wet octahedron CHOLERIC plasma lungs head breathintegration inspired dominant INFJ, INFP, ENFJ, ENFP receptive friendly empathic, benevolent authentic, altruistic credulous, mystical pathways, tomorrow RATIONAL WATER cold wet icosahedron PHLEGMATIC mucus kidneys genitals reproductionhomeostasis curious steady INTJ, INTP, ENTJ, ENTP marketing tough ingenious, autonomous resolute, pragmatic skeptical, relativistic intersections, intervals Type Element Qualities Solid Humor Fluid organ Extremity Systems Temperament Personality Jungian types see below Nature Mindedness Self Image Orientation Jungs categories are based on four axes Introverted or Extroverted I or E, Intuitive or Sensing N or S, Feeling or Thinking F or T, and Perceiving or Judging P or J. See too page 7. ECTODERM thin, wiry, active VATA WIND AIR SPACE mercurycommunication extracellularcalcium neuroendocrine, integration brain nerve skin whitebrown long crooked brownblack beady, black holes thought, integration, desire inspirational, myriad, future quickrecent shallow, mountains, flying cold, falling, isolation MESODERM stocky, strong, cyclic PITTA BILE FIRE sulphurenergy bloodsodium metabolic, immune muscle liver heart red medium hard greyyellow penetrating, yellowred compassion, vision, anger phasic, powerful, present all encompassing refreshing, action, light heat, violence, gloom ENDODERM rounded, steady, slow KAPHA PHLEGM EARTH WATER salstructure intracellularpotassium assimilation, excretion gut lung tubes transparent strong large whiteblue big, open, clear acceptance, stability, greed devoted, belonging, past slow, long, deep sound, water, clouds drowning, stasis, loss Embryonic germ cell layer Body type Ayurvedic dosha humour Tibetan elements ArabianEuropean alchemy Fluid compartment cation Body systems Tissue organ color Teeth Eyes Psyche Life Memory Sleep dreams Trouble nEurotrAnsmIttErs 56 57
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