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Human Body

53 52 smAll glossAryIndEx oF ItAlIcIsEd tErms brainstem 26, 38, 48 the oldest part of your brain, comprising mainly pons and medulla. brainwaves 38 beta alert, 1540 Hz, alpha relaxed, 814 Hz, theta daydream, 48 Hz and delta waves asleep, 14 Hz. bronchi 26 larger tubes of your lungs. calcitonin 46, 56 from the thyroid one of two main calcium regulating hormones. capillaries 24, 26, 30, 32, 54, 56 blood tissues exchange interface of vast area. catabolism 48, 55, 56 use it up and wear it out aspect of metabolism. cell 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 40, 42, 44, 46, 54, 55, 56. chakras 4, 44 Sanskrit for wheels interfaces between physical and etheric bodies, visible to some individuals. channels 14, 36, 54, 56 transmembrane structures, allowing specific ions or molecules to pass through. chi 4 Chinese for universal lifeforce. chromosomes 8, 10, 16 long strands of DNA, linear in all but mitochondria who have one small circular chromosome 23 mumdad pairs in humans carry genes. cochlear 40 spiral centre of hearing. codons 10 threebase units of RDNA that specify either an aminoacid, or start or stop. complexion 6, 58 mix of constitution and temperament, was more than skin deep. conceptus 8 the fertilised ovum. corpuscle 16 cell without a nucleus. cortex 38, 40, 42, 44, 56 outer part or layer of an organ, eg brain, kidney or adrenal. cortisol 44, 48, 56 daytime adrenal hormone, levels surge as you are waking up. dendrites 36, 42 receptive tendrils of nerve cells converse of axons. Descartes 44 French thinker 15961650. Considered pineal seat of the soul. DNA 6, 8, 10 deoxyribonucleic acid uncoiled, your total DNA would stretch to the moon and back several times. ectoderm 18, 44, 57 outer germ layer. endocrinology 6 study of hormones. endoderm 18, 57 inner lining germ layer. 3 billion no of malefemale couples on Earth base pairs in human genome 10 heartbeats in an average human lifetime 28. adrenaline 44, 56 fight, might or flight monoamine neurohomone. aminoacids 10, 55, 56 protein building blocks, consisting H2NamineCCOOH acid. A side chain on the middle carbon defines the twenty types used in humans. amoeba 32 morphing unicellular pond blob. anabolism 48, 55, 56 rebuilding, storage, and integrative metabolism in general. antibodies 34 immunoglobulins which often need complementary activation. antigen 34 anything that excites immune reaction to it usually a microbial protein. aqueous humour 2 specialised extracellular fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye. archaebacteriA 12 earliest organisms. ATP 14, 30, 42, 54, 55 adenosine triphosphate. atrioventricular valves 28 tricuspid right, and bicuspid left, from the bodys point of view the inner heart valves. atria 28 two upper chambers of the heart. autonomic system 16, 36 subconscious motor control of smooth muscles in tubes like gut, bronchioles, and arterioles, heart muscle and glands see parasympathetic. axon 36 delivers a nerve impulse from a neurosome to another cell. axon hillocks 36 area of a nerve cell between neurosome and axon outgoing impulses start here, when the sum of local voltages reaches the firing threshold.. bacteria iv, 10, 12, 35, 55 genetically unified unicellular organisms with no nucleus. Barr body 8 humans run on one X chromosome, so females, who have two Xs, inactivate one in each cell by scrunching it into a Barr body half and half maternal and paternal Xs are inactivated while an embryo, giving mosaic effects in females, and is why identical twin girls are less alike than boys. In the fetal part of the placenta, and in all marsupial cells, Barr bodies are all paternal. bases 6, 10 coding nucleotides binding as pairs across DNAs double helix adenine a pairs with thymine t, and cytosine c with guanine g RNA replaces t with uracil u. blood 6, 16, 18, 20, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 44, 46, 54, 55, 58 bloodflow 28, 56 tissuevariable flow rates, and pooling effects, confuse the issue. bone 16, 18, 22, 30, 32, 42, 46, 58. brain 14, 17, 19, 20, 26, 28, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 47, 48. endosymbiosis 12 housesharing. entelechy 50 the way life realises its patterns with an apparent end in sight. enzymes 14, 24, 44, 54 proteins that act as catalysts usually working with coenzymes, they potentiate molecular breakdown, synthesis and transformation. eukaryotic 12 complex cell with a nucleus. extracellular fluid 14, 16, 30, 32, 54, 57. factors 44, 56 in endocrinology, control hormones, which stimulate or inhibit the synthesis and release of other hormones. gamete 8 haploid intergenerational cells. ganglia 36 nodal colonies of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, or just outside the spine which has two sympathetic and two sensory ganglia per segment. gating 4 central nervous blocking effect by a pattern of peripheral stimuli. gene 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 22, 56 codes for a protein or RNA unit humans have about 30,000 genes but can make ten times as many proteins, as RNA combines recipes. genome 10 total DNA for an organism. glial cells 36 metabolic and structural support for nerves in brain and spinal cord. glomeruli 26 initial filtration subunits of the kidney each consists of a high pressure capillary bundle and collecting capsule. gonads 18, 21 ovaries or testes. granulocytes 34 white blood cells, mostly neutrophils which deal with bacteria. growth hormone 44, 48, 56 pituitary peptide, rules regeneration and integration. haploid 9 single set of chromosomes. haemoglobin 26, 30 gascarrying molecule. homo 38 Latin for man, as in H. sapiens. hormones 6, 18, 20, 44, 46, 48, 56 the most influential signalling molecules in your body. hydrogen bonds 10 loose proton links between molecules, especially important in lifetemperature aqueous systems like you. immunication 48, 55 the many ways in which immune system cells communicate. In Utero 22 while in your mothers womb. inflammation 48 it hurts because tissues are being opened up to allow repair. inhibition 36 restraint, dampening, and slowing of processes. insulin 44, 56 anabolic pancreatic hormone. intracellular fluid 15, 16, 54 cytosol. introns 11 palindromic or unwanted regions of mRNA which are snipped out before protein synthesis. ions 14, 36, 42, 46, 54 charged atoms, eg Na, Cl, PO43, usually in water. kidneys 16, 18, 20, 26, 46, 58. kundalini 4 awakened earth energy. limbic system 38 around the border limbus of the midbrain comprises olfactory tracts smell, areas of cortex such as the hippocampus, parts of the thalamus and hypothalamus, and other esoterica. liver 17, 20, 24, 30, 58. lung 17, 20, 26, 28, 30, 32, 58. lymphocites 32, 34 white blood cells many types performing cooperative functions in the immune system. macrophages 30, 32 34 white blood cells which engulf and digest unwanted stuff. marrow 30, 32, 58 highly vascular tissue of mesodermal origin in middle of bones, where stem cells give rise to all types of blood cells. medulla 44, 56 middle of an organ. meiosis 8 specialised cell division in gonads to form gametes. membrane 11, 14, 36, 57 the cell wall see plasma membrane. mesoderm 18, 57 middle germ layer, makes blood, solid organs, muscle, bone marrow. metabolism 44, 55, 57 the daily molecular transformations your body makes, divided broadly into anabolism and catabolism. MHC proteins 34 major histocompatibility complex on cell walls recognised as self. mitochondria iv, 11, 12, 14, 26, 30, 54, 55, 56 tiny red modified archaebacteria which outnumber your cells by hundreds to one electroenergetic grubs, they feed on oxygen and carbon, keep you alive and warm and make a glass of fresh water a day. mitosis 8, 14 standard cell division. molecule 6, 10, 14, 16, 30, 42, 54, 55 bonded structure made of atoms. motor nerves 36 tell muscles to contract. muscle 2, 16, 19, 21, 28, 36. myelin 36 insulating nerve sheath made by Schwann cells speeds up nerve conduction, as the impulse hops along inside the cell. NaKATP pump 14, 54 thousands per cell wall, generate electricity across membrane. nerve 14, 16, 19, 20, 36, 38, 40, 42, 47, 48, 50 neuroendrocrine system 44, 48, 57 brain, nerves, and hormones, as a totality which controls the body. neuromuscular junction 56 synapse between axon and muscle cell, where acetyl choline is usually the neurotransmitter. neuron 36 another word for nerve cell. neurosome 36, 38 main torso of a nerve cell, as opposed to its axons and dendrites. neurotransmitter 36, 56 molecule that perpetuates an electrical signal between cells. nucleus 10, 12 , 30, 56 brain of a cell, home of your DNA, enclosed by a selectively porous nuclear membrane each nucleus houses all your genes, mostly in the dense central nucleolus, supercoiled around histone proteins, while the few genes in use uncoil to be read by mRNA in the nuclear cortex. ovulation 46 release of an ovum or two. ovum 8, 52 female gamete, fattest cell of all. oxytocin 46, 56 posterior pituitary nonapeptide hormone of love, forgetting and letting go sister to vasopressin. pacemaker cells 28 all cardiac cells fire rhythmically automatically the fastest ones, pacemaker cells, spark the electromuscular wave over the heart from the right atrium. Paracelsus 6 influential healer and natural mystic c. 14911543. paracrine 44, 55 type of communication between cells using long chain fatty acids eg prostaglandins, thromboxanes, interleukins in tissues, locally in blood, and long distance. parasympathetic division of autonomic nervous system, running digestive, anabolic, and low alert relaxational states eg orgasms. parathyroid hormone 46, 56 releases calcium from bone, and slows its excretion. peptide 54, 55, 56 protein usually smallish, also the bond between two aminoacids. placenta 18, 47, 56 motherfetus interface. plasma 16 fluid noncellular part of blood. plasma membrane 14 semifluid, self forming wobbly phospholipid bilayer. platelets 32 cell fragments involved in clotting signal using modified fatty acids. prana 4 Indian chi. proprioceptors 42 stretchsensitive dendritic nerve endings in skeletal muscle. proteins 10, 14, 24, 30, 32, 34, 42, 55 chains of aminoacids, connected by peptide bonds, which fold into more complex 3D forms via hydrogen bonds and disulphide bridges. pulse 28 in arteries, the shockwave from cardiac contraction, not the bloodflow itself, so carries a mix of heart and vessel character. pumps 14, 54 static enzyme chains which move electrons, protons, ions or molecules through membranes, or between molecules. Qanun 26 a systematic compendium of current knowledge here by Ibn alNafis. receptors 14, 56 in cell wall or cytosol change shape to perpetuate a signal from specific hormones and neurotransmitters. RNA 10 ribonucleic acid, older than DNA, less durable, but less spliceable singlestranded in humans see bases. rods and cones 40 retinal cells which sense light rods and color cones. semilunar valves 28 usually three leaved stop blood refluxing into ventricles. sensory nerves 36, 40, 42, 48 their long dendrites form specialised endings to detect particular stimuli eg touch, light, heat, pressure, vibration, cold, taste, smell etc. sex hormones 44, 56 estrogens and progestogens mainly women, and androgens like testosterone mainly men. shiva and Shakti 4 divine Indian couple, manifesting yin and yang principles. spleen 21, 25, 30, 33. Sry1 18 initial gene in male cascade. status quo 46 dynamic equilibrium of existing conditions, current state of play. supercoiling 10 keep twisting a rubber band to make a simple superhelix. sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system, running highalert catabolic phases of action eg hunting and lovemaking. synapse 36 joint between two nerve cells a neuromuscular junction is a sort of synapse. tissue 2, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 30, 32, 55. thymus 34, 45, 56 immuneendocrine gland. thyroxins 44, 56 hormones secreted by the thyroid major metabolic influence. uterine milk 18 nutritious early food. vasopressin 56 blood pressure, memory, and salt balance hormone. ventricles 28 two lower chambers of the heart pump blood out to body and lungs. villi 24, 26 intestinal fingers, with microvilli, central capillaries and a lymphatic, which absorb all your food from the small intestine. viruses 10 parasitic polyhedral replicators. voltage gate 36 door of a channel that opens or shuts depending on local voltage. voltage gradient 36 change in electrical charge per unit distance. white matter 38 inner parts of brain and outer parts of spinal cord mostly consists of axons, getting its color from their myelin. XII 40 I olfactory, II optic, III oculomotor, IV trochlear, V trigeminal, VI abducent, VII facial, VIII vestibulocochlear, IX glossopharyngeal, X vagus, XI accessory, XII hypoglossal. yang 4, 58 positive, male, light, active. yin 4, 58 negative, female, dark, receptive. yolk sac 18 embryonic food and cell store.
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