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Human Body

42 What to do with heavy, doublecharged, celltrashing calcium Dump most of it as shells, coral reefs, or endoskeletons in our case, and use the remaining few ions to tell it to hop and skip. Calcium by nature alters the shape of molecules, so is ideal for signal transmission, while energy dependent processes involve phosphate transfer. In muscle cells phosphates are preloaded onto an ATP between two overlapping proteins, before they contract. After the decision to move a muscle is made, every step in the cascade from brain to ATP uses calcium triggers, which finally unsprings the phosphate, and the muscle moves some tissue, blood or bone, itself mainly crystalline calcium phosphate. Your skeleton has 200 bones, plus three in each ear, where the tiniest muscle, stapedius, tensions the smallest bone, stapes. Sensory endings in muscle called proprioceptors fire at a rate that depends on stretch, telling your brain the length of each muscle, so you can move accurately even with your eyes shut. The loop delay in this sensorybrainmotor circuit causes the 10Hz tremor you can see when you try to hold your hand still. Muscles contract in groups and sequences, controlled by the motor cortex and cerebellum where nerve cells fire in patterns to puppeteer complex routines, like writing or tumbling. These run more smoothly when not hampered by cortical overlay, also known as worry. Each cerebellar Purkinje cell has up to 100,000 dendrites receiving impulses from others, and this neural net can make fresh connexions all your life to learn new skills, like surfing. musclE And bonE a springloaded calcium dump
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