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Human Body

40 FIvE sEnsEs and the twelve cranial nerves All but XII nerves run to and from the brain in the spinal cord. Smell, I, uniquely relays direct to the cortex, which says jasmine or , as associated limbic circuits remember aromatic significance. Retinal rods and cones turn off when light hits them, having been inhibiting bipolar cells, who flash the pattern of light and color down II. Two inverted images meet at the optic chiasm, split and half cross, and flip twice more before radiating onto the occipital cortices, which integrate to show you a single vision. Most of your brain then decides what it means, and what to do about it. III, IV, and VI swivel and focus the eyes. III also constricts the pupil, opposed by sympathetic nerves rising from ganglia in the chest. V motors most of the chewing, and is the only cranial nerve to sense touch, via the dendrites in the skin of the face. Inner head spaces are under V, VII, and IXs intermingled sensorium, whose embryonic crossover explains toothear confusion, and some of the weirdness of sneezing. VII also makes you drool, smile, and cry, and tastes the sweet, sour, and salty front of the tongue the bitter back is IXs territory. The taste cortex warns the wanderer vagus, parasympathetic X, of what may be heading the way of the innards. Soundwaves beating the eardrum transmit via three bones to the oval window of the threechasm cochlear, whose cells are tensioned to resonate in tune. The spiral harpsong travels down VIII, along with gravity and motion data sensed by the 3D wing of the ears bony labyrinth, which is thus crucial for dancing. XIIs fine motor control of the tongue and larynx lets you speak, and XI not shown keeps your head up and shrugs your shoulders. 41
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