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58 aPPendix v PhyLoGeny of Life aPPendix vi GLossary Key mya million years ago tya thousand years ago myf million years in the future Dates corresponds to the point at which each diverged from our collective common ancestor 2 myf Homo , 300 tyapresent Homo sapiens, 300 tya Homo neanderthalensis, 800 tya300 tya Homo heidelbergensis, 1.4 mya 200 tya Homo erectus, 1.91.5 mya Homo ergaster, 2.41.9 mya Homo rudolfensis, 2 mya Chimpanzee Bonobo diverge from their own common ancestor, 2.51.9 mya Homo habilis, 3 mya Australopithicus africanus, 3.9 mya Australopithicus afarensis, 4 mya Australopithicus anamensis, 5.84.4 mya Ardipthicus ramidus, 6 mya Orrorin tugenesis, 7 mya Gorrilla, 76 mya First Humanlike species appears e.g., Sahelanthropus tchadensis, 14 mya Orangutans, 18 mya Gibbons, Adaptation. The process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment. Chromosome. A thread of nucleic acids and proteins wrapped up in the nucleus of most living, organic cells. Chromosomes carry genetic information genes. Crossover. The shuffling of genes between homologous parental chromosomes during meiosis. Results in a gamete sperm or egg. Ecosystem. A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. Environment. The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates. Epigenetic Inheritance. A term used in the study of environmental factors that influence the genome. Expression. If a gene is active in a cell it is said to be expressing itself. The phenotype is an expression of the genome. Gene. A stretch of DNA which codes for a protein. Gene Pool. The complete set of unique alleles in a species. Genotype. Describes the genetic constitution of an organism. 25 mya Old World Monkeys e.g., Macaques, Colobus, Baboons, etc, 40 mya New World Monkeys e.g., Capuchin, Marmosets, Spider Monkeys, 63 mya Lemurs, 70 mya Tree Shrews etc, 75 mya Rodents Rabbits sharing their own common ancestor around 40 mya, 85 mya Laurasian continent decendents e.g., Cats, Dogs, Camels, Horses, Seals, Whales, Hippos, Bats etc, 80105 mya All other placental mammals e.g., Elephant, Manatees, Aardvark, 140 mya Marsupials e.g., Kangaroos, Opossums etc 180 mya Monotremes Duckbilled Platypus. 300220 mya Reptiles and first true Birds. Turtles 300 mya Crocodilians 240 mya, Snakes 220 mya etc. 340 mya Amphibians e.g., Frogs, Toads, Salamanders etc, 415 mya Lungfish 440 mya Rayfinned fish e.g., Herring, Salmon, Sturgeon etc 460 mya Sharks and Rays, 530 mya Lampreys, Protostomes Deuterstomes e.g., Flatworms, Velvet worms, Mollusks, Sea squirts, 16001000 mya Sponges, Ctenophanes Jellylike organisms e.g., Venuss Girdle, Cindarians e.g., Jellyfish, Coral, Anenomes, 2500 1600 mya Protists, Plants, Amoebas, Fungi, 3000.86 2500 mya Eubacteria Archaeans Gamete. Sperm or egg. Genome. The DNA of a species. Lamarckism. A theory that some acquired characteristics can be inherited by later generations. Operates via epigenetics. Meiosis. A type of cell division where each of the two cells that result are a unique remix of parental DNA. Genes are shuffled between homologous chromosomes creating variety in the gametes. Meme. A cultural equivalent of a gene. Memetics. The study of memes. Mitosis. Cell division where each of the two cells that result have equal number and kind of chromosome as the parent. Niches. Describe species gaps in an ecosystem. Nucleus. A safe place where DNA lives. Phenotype. The outward manifestation of the internal genetic information of an organism. For example, blue eyes are the phenotype of the genetic information of an individual. Conversely, the trait for blue eyes is information held, but not always manifested, in the genotype.
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