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38 39 mimiCry and CamoUfLaGe the advantages they confer Many animals use natures own visual language scaring away predators by looking more dangerous than they really are, or disappearing into the background, vanishing from hungry eyes. Camouflage is a form of mimicry, where animals evolve to mimic their surroundings to improve their prospects of survival as predator or prey. In animals its effectiveness can rely on both the correct appearance and appropriate behavior. Other forms of mimicry involve species mimicking each other. Batesian mimicry is where harmless species mimic harmful ones. Wasps, for example, are harmful and have aposematic warning stripes in black and yellow. A number of moths, beetles and hoverflies mimic them, resulting in birds steering clear of them for fear of being stung. In Mllerian mimicry, species mimic one another for mutual benefit. It is seen in similarly marked tropical butterflies, which are all distasteful to birds. In MertensianEmsleyan mimicry, deadly prey mimic a less dangerous species. This is because they are so poisonous that predators always die from their bites, never getting a chance to learn to avoid them. Certain deadly coral snakes mimic other snakes that are less harmful below. Mimicry is occasionally seen in plants too. Some tropical vines have fake butterfly eggs on their leaves, so that female butterflies lay their real eggs elsewhere. Above Batesian and Mllerian mimicry. The harmless hoverfly finds it useful to have the warning markings of a stinging tree waspan example of Batesian mimicry. The potter wasp displays warning stripes, not dissimilar to those of tree wasps, an example of Mullerian mimicry. Above Clever camouflage. On the left, the moth larva ennomos has evolved so it can resemble a twig. On the right, the IndoMalayan butterfly kallima which has evolved leaflike markings that help it hide from predators. Above, and camougflaged left The sargassum weedfish has evolved extraordinary markings, protrusions and appendages, all of which make it extremely difficult for its predators to spot when it hides amongst the floating sargassum weed in the open zone of the Sargasso Sea. Potter Wasp Hoverfly Tree Wasp King Snake harmless Coral Snake deadly Arizona Coral Snake poisonous
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