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Essential Elements

54 55 carbon chEmIStry conStantS and hadronS Name Functional Suffix First Member General Group Formula Name Formula Prefix no. of carbon atoms Meth1, Eth2, Prop3, But4, Pent5, Hex6, Hept7, Oct8, Non9, Dec10 Electron Mass m e 9.1091534 x 1031 kg 0.5110 MeV Electron charge e 1.602189 x 1019 C 4.8030 x 1010 esu Proton mass m p 1.672648 x 1027 kg 1836.1 x electron mass Neutron mass m n 1.6749545 x 1027 kg Atomic mass unit u 1.66054 x 1027 kg Avogadro s no. NA 6.022045 x 1023 mol1 Bohr radius a o 0.52917706 x 1010 mol1 Boltzmann const. k 1.380662 x 1023 J K1 Faraday constant F 9.648456 x 104 C mol1 Gas constant R 8.31441 J K1 mol1 H20 triple point Ttpw 273.16 K Ice point temp. Tice 273.1500 K Mol. vol. gas V 2.241383 x 102 m3 mol1 Perm. of vacuum o 4 x 107 H m1 Permittivity const. o 8.8542 x 1012 F m1 Planck constant h 6.626176 x 1023 mol1 Planck length lP 1.616 x 1035 m Planck time tP 5.319 x 1044 s Planck mass mP 2.1777 x 108 kg Rcp. fine str. const. 1 137.036 Rydberg const. RH 1.097373 x 107 m1 Speed of light c 2.99792458 x 108 m s1 1 angstrm A 10 x 1010 m 1 atmosphere 101325 N m2 Pa 1 calorie cal 4.184 joules J 1 celsius oC 273.150 Kelvin K o celsius 59 ofahrenheit 32 1 curie Ci 3.7 x 1010 s1 1 erg 2.390 x 1011 kcal 1 esu 3.3356 x 1010 C 1 eV 1.60218 x 1019 J 1 eV molecule 96.485 kJ mol1 1 kcal mol1 349.76 cm1, 0.0433 eV 1 kJ mol 1 83.54 cm1 1 wave no. cm1 2.8591 x 103 kcal mol1 M Baryons Symbol Mass Quarks Charge Spin Proton N 938 uud 1 12 Neutron No 940 ddu 0 12 Sigma 1198 uus 1 12 Sigmao o 1192 dus 0 12 Sigma S 1197 dds 1 12 Lambdao o 1116 dus 0 12 Xio o 1315 uss 0 12 Xi 1321 dss 1 12 Sigma 938 uus 1 12 Delta 1231 uuu 2 32 Delta 1232 duu 1 32 Deltao o 1234 ddu 0 32 Delta 1235 ddd 1 32 Sigma 1189 uus 1 32 Sigmao o 1193 dus 0 32 Sigma 1197 dds 1 32 Xio o 1315 uss 0 32 Xi 1321 dss 1 32 Omega 1672 sss 1 32 Mesons Pi 140 ud 1 0 Pio o 135 uu, dd 0 0 Pi 140 du 1 0 Eta 547 uu, dd, ss 0 0 Eta prime 958 uu, dd, ss 0 0 Kaon 494 us 1 0 Kaono o 498 ds 0 0 Rho 770 ud 1 1 Rhoo o 770 uu, dd 0 1 Omega 782 uu, dd 0 1 Phi 1020 ss 0 1 K K 892 us 1 1 Ko Ko 892 ds 0 1 J 3097 cc 0 1 Upsilon 9460 bb 0 1 Note Over 200 baryons and 36 mesons are known o
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