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Elements of Music

44 45 advancEd harMonIEs rascals and spices Because the dominant chord is the chord of hope and anticipation, chromatic added tones are easily accommodated to add more intervallic complexity. This in turn strengthens the urge to resolve, which can either be fulfilled or denied for the manipulation of tension and release. Extensions can also be added to any of the four chord qualities major, minor, diminished, or augmented. It is the nonchord tones or nonstation notes that provide the colouring of the essential chord qualities. When they are voiced next to nearby stations, they are considered an added effect. When these colour tones are transposed an octave higher, they become the 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths, which are generally arrived at by stacking thirds. From the root, we pass through the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th, and conceivably beyond opposite top. These pitch arrangements can yield some startlingly complex harmonic structures, yet the bottom three members of the stack still retain their identity, and imbue the whole edifice with a basic flavour. Music since the end of the 19th century has explored these expanded harmonic possibilities, particularly jazz. Sixth chords are a category of harmonies with chromatic alterations that don t fit into the usual parallel majorminor borrowing structure, sometimes referred to as vagrants. They are alterations of the subdominant chord, decorating the dominant. An example of chord notation with extensions is shown below. Left. Tones can be stacked on top of a chord beyond the root, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and octave, further complicating and enriching its structure and intervallic flavour. The higher these tones, the less functional and more colourful they become. As we continue to stack, we assume each new note below is included, so a 9th chord includes the 7th. If the extension is not stacked, then it is added see page 28. Some examples are shown above. Left Just as the intermediary tones 2, 4, and 6 come in certain flavours, their correlates, up one octave, the 9th, 11th, and 13th, come in the same flavours, lowered, natural, or raised. All tones above the octave correspond to the tones within the octave, with seven steps added. Above Multiple resolutions of the diminished 7th chord. Because the diminished chord is completely symmetrical, comprised entirely of minor thirds and tritones, any and all of its pitches can function as potential roots. In each example the same four notes in each inversion yield a slightly different enharmonic spelling of the same diminished chord, preserving the syntax of thirds. Each tone has an opportunity to be a leading tone, and resolve upwards by a half step, and can therefore resolve to four possible chords. These resulting four roots themselves in turn spell out a diminished chord, built from consecutive minor thirds EGB bD b. Above Resolutions of the various altered 6th chords. The Italian, French, and German versions function like secondary dominants, substituting for the dominant. In the Italian, the augmented sixth is created between the A b and the F , since they resolve outwards. The German chord is in possession of a perfect fifth, while the unusual flavour of the French is due to the lowered fifth, making a chord with two major thirds and two augmented fourths or tritones, a harmonically suggestive symmetrical chord. The Neapolitan version functions like the subdominant, most often a bII chord, popular in minor. MISTY A Ebmaj7 Bbm9 Eb13 Abmaj7 Abm9 Db1311 Ebmaj7 C79 Fm7 Bb7 Gm7 C7b9 Fm7 Bb13b9
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