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Elements of Music

32 33 Modal, tonal, dronal world systems and scales In every musical scale there is a muchused primary set of tones, and a smaller secondary set, used to colour the first. Basic primary pentatonic, fivenote scales form the backbones of many scales around the world below, the most simple deriving from four consecutive fifths. Other scales follow the gravitational forces of the stations, and use chromatic alteration to communicate tension and emotion. Scales with more half steps can be tighter, filled with introversion, chromatic complexity, and pathos, while more diatonic scales can be extroverted, simple, affirming, and expansive. There are essentially three kinds of pitch organization. Modal music, which does not modulate, uses leading tones liberally, sometimes not at all harmonic movement is possible, and chords can be borrowed from other scales. In tonal music, which does modulate, the five secondary tones not used in the major scale have a relatively fixed relationship to the primary set, determined by the circle of fifths, 4, b7, 5, 1, b3, each temporarily suggesting the scale to which the secondary tones act as leading tones. These accidentals only last for the measure in which they occur, and are restored in subsequent measures, sometimes followed by a courtesy accidental as a reminder. Dronal music has no harmony, the scale itself being the harmonic universe, so the intervals all relate solely to the still point, the drone, with a full chromatic range available. In modal music, the dominant chord need not be major, or even used, and leading tones can occur in positions other than in the standard majorminor. With good harmonic variability and softened tonetendencies, this is the most common type of harmonic system. Tonal music involves just two modalities, major and minor. The positions of the half steps are highly organised. The dominant chord is always major, pointing to the tonic with its powerful leading tone the third of its chord, also the 7th of the scale. Dronal music, melodic rather than harmonic in nature, has all the notes of the scale assuming variable roles, taking on importance by interval and repetition, all of them always relating to the central point, resting tone, or drone.
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