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Elements of Music

22 23 InstruMEntatIon the textures of timbre Musicologists identify six basic types of musical instrument membranophones membranes, chordophones strings, idiophones struck, metallophones metallic, aerophones air, and electrophones electronic. Wind instruments generally have an open end, and often a conical shape to release sound into the air. Wind can be moved through a narrow space to vibrate a reed, or two, or sound can be generated by the buzzing of lips blowing through a tube, as with brass instruments. Strings can be either plucked or bowed, and can resonate in sympathetic accord with other strings. Percussion instruments move air quickly, abruptly, and noisily, and have membranes and means of striking them. They provide contrast to the smooth, sustained tones of melody and harmony, punctuating with shakes, sizzles, tingles, and rings. All cultures utilise percussion in their music, and many brass and stringed instruments reveal the algorithmic spiral or curvature of pitch. Some cultures also believe instruments contain animal souls that sing when the gut or skin vibrates. Many instruments resemble the structures of the ear, both being part of the vibration duality, instruments generating and the ear receiving. The voice can imitate most the basic ranges of male and female voices are shown below. Above Examples of string, wind, and percussion instruments from various times and places around the world. AFRICA ASIA EUROPE GREECE INDIA MID. EAST S. AMERICA N O IS E T U BE S R E ED S P IP ES ST R IN G S S T R IK E ST R IN G S B OW ST R IN G S P LU CK ID IO PH ON ES M EM BR AN O PH ON ES kora ndingidi chitendi ombgwe algaita horn dun dun mbira shekere pipa erhu yanggum shakuhachi bawu suona tanggu munkugyo jabara guitar violin piano flute clarinet horn timpani triangle cymbals lyre lyra santouri syrinx aulos salpinx daouli seistron scabellum sitar sarangi santur bansuri shenai nagfani tabla danda manjira oud rebab santur ney mijwiz karnay dumbek sistrum zils charango vihuela de arco berimbau quena chirima trumpet conga guiro maracas Soprano Contralto Mezzo Soprano Tenor Baritone Bass
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