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Earth Grids

36 37 In 1513, a Turkish admiral, Piri Reis, produced a map with a series of grid lines, compiled from twenty old charts and eight Mappa Mundis opposite top right. Used for 200 years in the Mediterranean with no improvements, it was not until the 1960s that Charles Hapgood, an American historian, solved the projections used, replotted them, and came to the extraordinary conclusion that ancient seafarers must have sailed from pole to pole. In particular, Antarctica is often shown on the maps as two islands, or a large island with a smaller peninsula opposite lower right, a fact only proven by radar survey through the ice in the late 20th century. Antarctica may have been surveyed when its coasts were free of ice, suggesting a possible date earlier than 12,000 BC. Some maps had portolans on them, like grid points, radiating out either 16 or 32 spokes, and these maps also showed accurate longitude, something not rediscovered until the 1700s by John Harrison. The prime meridian of the maps passed through Alexandria in Egypt, the ancient centre of learning where Piri Reis had found many of them. The Di Canestris map opposite top left shows an anthropormorphic king and queen representing North Africa and Europe, defining Alexandria at its centre. Hapgood found an interesting anomaly that Hagens picked up on a 12node perimeter containing 28 triangles corresponding closely to the UVG grid opposite lower left. In 1866, Leonce Elie de Beaumont, a founder of geology, published a map of France, centred on Paris and based on a pentagonal format. Often dismissed as arcane, it is precisely 112 of the Earths surface, a dodecahedral face, fitting in neatly with modern grid theory. ancienT maps prehistoric mariners and perplexing projections Above The Dicanastris Map of 13351337 Showing rhombic geometry with four UVG grid triangles centred on Alexandria. Above A reprojection of a detail of the Di Canestris map showing the prime meridian through Alexandria and the UVG grid triangles. Above The Piri Reis Map. Accumulated from 20 old charts and global maps, known as Jaferiye by Arabs in the time of Alexander the Great. Above Antartica on the Oronteus Finaeus World Map of 1532. It was not until the mid 20th century that a modern survey was produced.
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